The five most common southern pine bark beetle species include three in the genus Ips: the sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); the eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); and the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); and two species of Dendroctonus: the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmer… The five most common southern pine bark beetle species include three in the genus Ips: the sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); the eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); and the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); and two species of Dendroctonus: the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmer… The southern pine beetle (SPB), one of the most destructive forest insects in the southeastern United States, quickly devastates pine dominated forests during outbreaks. 1992). Then came spruce beetles, which have targeted high-elevation Engelmann spruce, spreading from New Mexico into Colorado and beyond. Photo: Ronald F. Billings, Texas Forest Service, Bugwood.org . A recent historical review estimated that SPB caused $900 million of damage to pine forests from 1960 through 1990 (Price et a1. Their larvae are white and approximately the size of a rice grain. A similarly aggressive species in Europe is the spruce ips Ips typographus. It has a hard black exoskeleton, and measures approximately 5 millimetres ( ⁄4 in), about the size of a grain of rice. After World War II, state and federal agencies in the South began to recognize forest protection as a necessary part of forest management. The SPB may subsist by killing decrepit trees like those struck by lightning. I am doing homework for my environmental science class and I have been researching all day with no luck. The last widespread outbreak occurred in the early 2000's and resulted in an estimated $1.5 billion dollars of economic damage. For more information on the biology, ecology and management of the southern pine beetle, as well as numerous other forest insects, diseases and plants, please contact Doug Streett, Project Leader of the Insects, Diseases, and Invasive Plants (IDIP) Research Work Unit in Pineville, LA or visit the IDIP website. The galleries created by both the adult and their offspring can effectively girdle a tree, causing it’s death. In Northern Ontario, the $11.9 billion forestry industry, which supports more than 55,000 jobs, faces the risks of invasive pests such as the mountain pine beetle. The beetle is small, only 2-4 mm in length (about the size of a grain of rice) and is red-brown to black in color. Southern pine beetle (SPB) is a bark beetle that infests pine trees. These forests can then be monitored more closely or scheduled for management to reduce their susceptibility. Accessibility to the infestation, value of infested host material, markets, and management constraints associated with forest ownership and management objectives generally dictate which procedure is used. Native bark beetles pose serious threats to forests and can exacerbate additional disturbance events (Covington and Moore 1994). The mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae, southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis, and their near relatives are major pests of conifer forests in North America. Bark beetles range from Canada to Mexico and can be found at elevations from sea level to 11,000 feet. The SPB must kill its host pines to reproduce, and attacks trees en masse. Since then it has launched a full attack on the invasion of North America. They're killing an unprecedented number of trees. Development is faster in the summer (26 days) than during the winter (54 days). The combination of stress that made the tree susceptible to the southern pine beetle, the beetles tunneling in the cambium, and the blue stain fungus is almost always fatal. Can anyone help me? In 2008, the MFC initiated a cost-share program to encourage private forest landowners to thin their dense pine stand … The adult beetles are black to rusty brown about ¼ of an inch in length about the size of a pencil point. Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) (SPB) is an indigenous insect that has likely played a key Price, T. 1994. 1992). It has also been reported in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri (St. George and Beal, 1929). The beetle is small, only 2-4 mm in length, about the size of a grain of rice, and is red-brown to black in color. When the mountain pine beetle began blazing a path across forests in British Columbia and Alberta, nobody could have imagined the extent of the damage to come. The mountain pine beetle is a naturally occurring insect of the Rocky Mountain ecosystem. Rachel Carson’s book, “Silent Spring,” decried the existing pattern of pesticide use, calling instead for a more careful use of these chemicals. Pitch tubes can range in color from white to red. Trees are often mass attacked by thousands of individual southern pine beetles. Though, if their population is high, they may attack healthy ones as well. Since it was reported in east Tennessee, coastal plain North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and piedmont North Carolina, the outbreak was probably … Mountain pine beetles are native to western forests, and they've evolved with the lodgepole pine trees they infest. Southern pine beetle forest infestation, courtesy USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org. The book catalyzed the environmental movement in the United States during the 1960s and ’70s. Mountain pine beetle adults will tunnel into a tree where they lay their eggs. Bark beetles range from Canada to Mexico and can be found at elevations from sea level to 11,000 feet. The beetles invade the trunk and overwhelm the tree’s ability to produce resin to drown or pitch out the beetles.