[85] South Africa introduced a sugar tax on 1 April 2018. Notable research on effect of excess sugar in modern diets in the United Kingdom includes the work of Professor John Yudkin with his book called, "Pure, White and Deadly: The Problem of Sugar" first published in 1972. For Coke and Pepsi, 22 percent of the tax was passed on to consumers, with the balance paid by vendors. [58], In September 2013, Mexico's president Enrique Peña Nieto, on his fiscal bill package, proposed a 10% tax on all soft drinks, especially carbonated drinks,[59][60] with the intention of reducing the number of patients with diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases in Mexico, which has one of the world's highest rates of obesity. [62], In September 2013, soda companies launched a media campaign to discourage the Mexican Chamber of Deputies and Senate from approving the 10% soda tax. Then She Was Silenced", "Denmark to scrap decades-old soft drink tax", Food taxes and their impact on competitiveness in the agri-food sector, "The impact of the French soda tax on prices and purchases. [66] Monthly sales figures for December 2014 were down 12% on the previous two years. 22. Lawmakers want to tax sugary drinks, "Quirky ballot issues: Durango stuffs bag fee, Telluride slams soda tax", "How a soda tax fight in San Francisco explains California politics", Mayor wants soda tax to support early childhood education, "Updated: Soda tax goes flat in Santa Fe", "Most Americans Oppose Soda, Candy Taxes", "Poll shows support for soda tax to fight obesity", "Tax Sugary Drinks? [34], According to a 2019 review of research on sugar drink taxes, the taxes successfully reduced consumption of sugar drinks and reduced adverse health consequences. The tax increase was rolled back to 2017-level in 2020. didn't, "University of Colorado Boulder receives soda-tax exemption", Cook County soda pop tax approved with Preckwinkle breaking tie vote, Cook County: Soda tax no longer runs afoul of food stamp rules, "Cook County officials vote 15-1 to repeal sugary drink tax", "Navajo Nation sales tax rate change, July 2018", "Soda tax in Multnomah County? 1 INTRODUCTION Many countries face a growing burden of obesity‐related disease 1 and have experienced rapid trajectories of increased sugar‐sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. [115] Another 2017 study results were that purchases of healthier drinks went up and sales of sugary drinks went down, without overall grocery bills increasing or the local food sector losing money. The tax could decline the prevalence of obesity in the Australian population, which could lead to gains in health-adjusted life years. The tax is imposed at the point of production or importation, in two bands. Their aim is to implement a 1.15 cents per ounce tax on sugary drinks. Yet Barry Popkin of the Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA and Lynn Silver from the Public Health Institute found that, even there, the tax had changed people’s behaviour. We also found a 16.2% increase in water purchases that was higher in low- and middle-income households, in urban areas, and among households with adults only. The levy excludes fruit juices, despite health professionals warning that fruit juice is as bad for a person as highly sugary drinks. The authors of the study suggest it is possible that consumers are shifting away from sugary drinks to healthier ones - and without causing undue economic hardship because spending did not drop. "[41] A 2019 study in the Quarterly Journal of Economics estimated that the optimal sugar drink tax on the federal level in the U.S. would be between 1 and 2.1 cents per ounce, whereas the optimal tax on the city-level was 60% lower than that due to cross-border shopping. Web. [96] With regard to a proposed tax on sugar-sweetened beverages, a study published in the British Medical Journal on 31 October 2013, postulated that a 20% tax on sugar-sweetened beverages would reduce obesity in the United Kingdom rates by about 1.3%, and concluded that taxing sugar-sweetened beverages was "a promising population measure to target population obesity, particularly among younger adults. [39][40] Hence if both of those results were realistic and the price elasticity of supply would be the same for both, the tax burden on consumers would be higher in Mexico than in Chile. [15], Obesity is also a global public and health policy concern, with the percentage of overweight and obese people in many developed and middle income countries rising rapidly. sugar tax as a tool for improving health outcomes and sets out the issues that studies should address if they are to help policymakers answer the question about the appropriate role of a sugar tax within the New Zealand health and tax systems. Sales of other non-taxed drinks such as unsweetened teas, milk and fruit juices also rose. [125] In February 2017, soda manufacturers and retailers announced sales declines of 30-50% in Philadelphia and announced job cuts and layoffs. The tax is an excise tax on distributors of sugary drinks. [31], The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that a national targeted tax on sugar in soda could generate $14.9 billion in the first year alone. Cook County includes Chicago and has a population of nearly 5.2 million. [163][164], A 2010 study published in the medical journal Health Affairs found that if taxes were about 18 cents on the dollar, they would make a significant difference in consumption. The Australian Medical Association continued to press for a sugar tax. [25] Sugary drink taxes have been discussed as a potential means to reduce the health and economic burden of dental caries. In March 2014, the government of the island of St Helena, a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic, announced that it would be introducing an additional import duty of 75 pence per litre on sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks with more than 15 grams of sugar per litre. [10] Unlike sugar from food, the sugar from drinks enters the body so quickly that it can overload the pancreas and the liver, leading to diabetes and heart disease over time. The budget, proposed by RSC Chairman Mike Johnson (R-La.) [119] The American Beverage Association (ABA), funded by soda companies and distributors, ran local television, radio, and newspaper advertisements against the idea, claiming that the tax would disproportionately hurt the poor. The 42 % tax increase on non-alcoholic beverages was attacked by Norwegian retailers and received much media attention. Sales of Coca-Cola Amatil's fizzy drinks have fallen 8.1% by volume from 2016 to 2018. We have reached a turning point, but the industry is still fighting. [5] Sales tax (indirect tax) is paid by the person consuming the item at the time of purchase and collected by the government from the seller. Shopkeepers did not lose out because the average grocery bill remained the same. [134][135][136], A 2019 study (which has yet to be peer-reviewed) of the 1.5-cents-per-ounce tax in Philadelphia found actual sales of the affected beverages (which included diet beverages) dropped 46% in the city itself, but when accounting for people traveling to neighboring cities without a tax, overall purchases of the affected beverages dropped 20%. From now on, drinks with a sugar content of more than 5g per 100ml will be taxed 18p per litre and 24p for drinks with 8g or more. The Association's annual lobbying spending rose from about $391,000 to more than $690,000 from 2003 to 2008, and in the 2010 election cycle, its lobbying grew to $8.67 million. [55] In 2016, the tax has resulted in a 22% reduction in energy drink consumption and 19% of people reduced their intake of sugary soft drinks. This comes after a public consultation favored these two options out of four. These measures will take effect sometime in 2020. [48] Soda is often less expensive than bottled water in Colombia. Many just love the taste, others dislike the artificial sweetener, and some don’t like being told what to drink. NPR.org, 12 January 2012. The levy was fixed at 2.1 cents per gram of sugar, for each gram above 4g per 100ml of sweetened beverage. [204] A Thompson Reuters poll released in the same month found that 51 percent of Americans opposed a soda tax, while 33 percent supported one. 4 (1 April 2014): pp. [32] Some tax measures call for using the revenue collected to pay for relevant health needs: improving diet, increasing physical activity, obesity prevention, nutrition education, advancing healthcare reform, etc. Daycare centres have doubled and tripled in size.”, The battle for sugar taxes has not yet been won in the USA, he said. [138] The soda industry spent almost $20 million in its unsuccessful push to defeat the soda tax initiative, a record-breaking amount for a San Francisco ballot initiative. It's payable when consumers purchase soft drinks or similar beverages. Proponents see taxes as a way to tackle the growing obesity crisis by curbing consumption, encouraging manufacturers to reformulate and create a revenue stream for public health initiatives. ", "Failure of State Soda Tax Plan Reflects Power of an Antitax Message", "Richmond Municipal Code CHAPTER 7.08 SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGES", "Voters resoundingly reject Richmond 'soda' tax", "Soda tax trounced in Richmond but may rise again on larger stages", California soda tax bill pulled without a vote, "New California Soda-Tax Bill Under Consideration", "Bill Monning's Proposed Soda Tax Dies in Committee", More expensive soda? This has led to a 21.6% decrease in the consumption of sugary drinks.[47]. [98] It helped to boost sales, rather than dampening performance, according to Britvic’s 2018 Soft Drinks Review. Tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Berkeley, California has brought soft drink consumption down - and may have increased water sales, Last modified on Wed 20 Sep 2017 14.07 EDT. These researchers believe that an 18 percent tax on these foods could cut daily intake by 56 calories per person, resulting in a weight loss of 5 pounds (2 kg) per person per year. Whether the sugary drinks tax is imposed on the seller or consumer, in both cases the tax burden is shared between both.[36]. Both proponents and opponents of the initiative made reference to Seattle's sugary drink tax. For instance, the price elasticity of demand for the sugary drink was found to be -1.37 in Chile while -1.16 in Mexico. [57], Malaysia has a sugary drink tax implemented 1 July 2019. [69] Non-alcoholic beverages have since been separated from the general tax, and in 2017, the tax for sugary drinks was set to 3.34 kroner per litre. • Estimates suggest that, over 10 years, a tax on sugary drinks of 1 cent per ounce in the United States of America would result in more than US$ 17 billion in healthcare cost savings (10). [citation needed] The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates that a nation-wide three-cent-per-ounce tax would generate over $24 billion over four years. Many countries have chosen to tax soft drinks with added sugar such as fizzy drinks, whilst some have gone one step further and taxed drinks with natural … In 1994, one of the first instances where the idea of a targeted tax on sugar sweetened drinks with a link to anticipated beneficial health outcomes, was proposed by. Berkeley, California, introduced a substantial tax on sugar-sweetened beverages on 1 March 2015. Barbados passed a soda tax in September 2015,[156] applied as an excise of 10%. [21][22], A French study published in 2019 on the British Medical Journal also enlighted a possible link between the consumption of sugary drinks (beverages containing more than a 5% of sugar) and a higher or increased risk of developing cancer. [143], A one-cent-per-ounce soda tax passed on 10 November 2016, by a 9–8 vote, with Cook County Board of Commissioners President Toni Preckwinkle breaking the 8–8 tie. Indirect taxes include import/export taxes on sugar or other ingredients before it has been processed and local/regional.international taxes. “Additionally, Berkeley small businesses have not seen a drop in overall sales. There are 18,000 signatures required by 15 December 2017 in order for the tax to be voted on in May. [18] Added sugar is a common feature of many processed and convenience foods such as breakfast cereals,[19] chocolate, ice cream, cookies, yogurts and drinks produced by retailers. [51] At a national level, similar measures have also been announced in Mexico in 2013 and in the United Kingdom in 2016. France introduced a targeted sugar tax on soft drinks in 2012. [124], After the tax took effect, Kenney said retailers' price gouging blamed on the tax and charging the tax on items not subject to it was "wrong" and "misleading". It was the first to look at the impacts on Oakland's sugar-sweetened beverage tax and the first to look at impacts of the taxes on children's consumption in either Philadelphia or Oakland. [44] This would lessen the tax burden on people who consume soda moderately enough not to cause health problems. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (2017): 1. 672-677. [67] The study also included that "the reductions in diabetes alone could yield savings in projected healthcare costs of $983 million. sales drop from soda tax, "Soda Tax Revenues Lag from Higher Prices, Fewer Purchases, Tax Avoidance", "Funding quality pre-kindergarten slots with Philadelphia's new 'sugary drink tax': simulating effects of using an excise tax to address a social determinant of health", Pepsi to lay off 80 to 100, blames soda tax, Philly’s Soda Tax Is Back in Court Today, Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court upholds Philly soda tax, Beverage tax upheld by Commonwealth Court, "Push for soda taxes across USA notches win in Philly", "Williams, L., et al, Aplts v. City of Phila, et al (Soda Tax case) | Cases of Public Interest | News & Statistics | Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania", "Soda Taxes Approved in Four Cities, Vote Looms in Chicago's Cook County", "Sugary Drinks Tax Frequently Asked Questions", "Record spending by soda industry to defeat Prop V", Why Berkeley passed a soda tax and S.F. The tax rate was increased from 13% to 18%, for drinks containing 6.25g added sugar per 100ml. More recently, Finland reintroduced an earlier soft drink tax in 2011, while Hungary taxes sugary drinks as part of its 2011 public health product tax, which covers all food products with unhealthy levels of sugar. More than 35 countries and seven cities in the US — starting with Berkeley, California, in 2015 — now impose a tax on soda and other sugar-sweetened beverages, and several more places are … [39] To some degree, this causes people who over-consume soda to pay for health care costs they are causing, which proponents argue is more fair. The government could tax each unit of sugar or create a tiered system—similar to the different tax rates on liquor, wine, and beer. [104] A few states impose excise taxes on bottled soft drinks or on wholesalers, manufacturers, or distributors of soft drinks. They will be compulsory for "unhealthy" drinks and optional for "healthy" ones, covering instant drinks, soft drinks, juices, cultured milk and yogurt drinks in bottles, cans and packs. The American Heart Association praised study and the sugar tax. [131][121] The legal challenge was dismissed by the Court of Common Pleas in December 2016, and in June 2017 the Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania (in a 5-2 decision) affirmed that ruling. Presidential hopeful Bernie Sanders argued in an op-ed that the tax would hurt the poor. Findings from the project have been published in peer-reviewed journals, such as the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management,[177] Economics and Human Biology,[178] the Journal of Health Economics,[179] as well as in working papers hosted by the National Bureau of Economic Research[180] and in Mathematica issue briefs. In the first year, the tax was levied only in the chain supermarkets and chain petrol stations, so there is still scope for a bigger effect when independent and small shops also bring it in. [80][81][82] On 10 October 2019, the Ministry of Health chose to ban advertisements of drinks with high sugar content; making Singapore the first country in the world to do so, as well as introduce color-coded labels. 10 The … [33] Another area to which the revenue raised by a soda tax might go, as suggested by Mike Rayner of the United Kingdom, is to subsidize healthier foods like fruits and vegetables. [145], On 30 June 2017, a Cook County judge granted a temporary restraining order filed by the Illinois Retail Merchants Association and several Cook County-based grocers that prohibited the tax from being put into effect until at least 12 July. This was the most populous jurisdiction with a soda tax in the U.S.[144] The campaign to introduce the tax was heavily funded by Mike Bloomberg. “I didn’t think we’d get much effect at all.” The debate around obesity and the sugar tax had already brought consumption down in Berkeley – and yet the introduction of the tax appears to have brought it down further. Experts hope that sugar taxes will hike the prices of unhealthy drinks and reduce the number of people who consume large quantities of them. [128] A recent study from 2017 found that Philadelphia's tax has decreased sugary beverage consumption in impoverished youth by 1.3 drinks/week. [201] Attitudes seem to have shifted a lot since 2013 when a poll concluded that "respondents were opposed to government taxes on sugary drinks and candy by a more than 2-to-1 margin. They are fighting desperately in Philadelphia because it is a low-income and very high-purchasing city. [30] Where the main concern with tobacco is cancer, the main concerns with soda are diabetes and obesity. [150], On 5 June 2017, Seattle's City Council voted 7–1 to pass a 1.75 cents per ounce tax on sugary drinks, including soda and some fruit drinks; the tax does not include diet soda drinks and it started on 1 January 2018. New Yorkers Say 'No' but Leave Some Wiggle Room", "In Obesity Fight, A Third Of Americans Support Soda Tax", "Lobbying Spending Database-American Beverage Assn, 2009", Tax Soft Drinks To Fight Obesity, US experts say, Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity at Yale University, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sugary_drink_tax&oldid=1004815512, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. He said, "If you drink soft drinks every day, you are overloading your system with sugar, and significantly increasing your risk of diabetes. [52] Following introduction, soft drinks were estimated to be up to 3.5% more expensive. [205], Fighting the creation of soft drink taxes, the American Beverage Association, the largest U.S. trade organization for soft drink bottlers, has spent considerable money lobbying Congress. [66], A 2016 study published in PLoS Medicine suggested that a 10% excise tax on soda "could prevent 189,300 new cases of Type 2 diabetes, 20,400 strokes and heart attacks, and 18,900 deaths among adults 35 to 94 years old" over a ten-year period. also found that when paired with the pre-K program, attendance increases significantly, a finding that is likely to have longer term positive effects than a sugary drink tax alone. [123] It was reported after two months of the tax that Philadelphia supermarkets and beverage distributors are planning layoffs because sugary beverage sales are down between 30 and 50 percent. [63] They also publicly accused New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg[64] of orchestrating the controversial bill from overseas. Drinks covered under a soda tax often include carbonated soft drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks. A Quinnipiac University poll released in April 2010 found that New Yorkers opposed a state tax on soda of one penny per ounce by a 35-point margin, but opposition dropped to a margin of one point when respondents were told the money would go towards health care. Drinks with sugar above 10g per 100mL would receive a tax of MAD 45 (US$4.66) per 100L. Sugar Tax Is Good Public Policy, Not 'Nanny Statism' Here's the bitter truth about the hidden costs of sugar-sweetened beverages. Lisa M. Powell, Roy Wada, Joseph J. Persky, Frank J. Chaloupka, "Employment Impact of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Taxes", American Journal of Public Health 104, no. The tax stayed in effect up until 1 December. The evidence on purchase responses is mixed and less robust, indicating at most a very small reduction in soft drink purchases (about half a litre per capita per year), an impact which would be consistent with the low tax rate. [66] The authors of the study urged the Mexican authorities to double the tax to further reduce consumption. urges Tax on Sugary Drinks to Fight Obesity", "Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis", "Sweetened beverage consumption, incident coronary heart disease, and biomarkers of risk in men", "Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women", "Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review", "All Sugared Up: The Best And Worst Breakfast Cereals For Kids", "A small glass of juice or soda a day is linked to increased risk of cancer, study finds", https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/259413/WHO-NMH-NHD-17.12-eng.pdf?sequence=1, "Health impact assessment of the UK soft drinks industry levy: a comparative risk assessment modelling study", "The impact of a sugar-sweetened beverages tax on oral health and costs of dental care in Australia", "The Use of Excise Taxes to Reduce Tobacco, Alcohol, and Sugary Beverage Consumption", "Tax Incidence: How the Tax Burden is Shared Between Buyers and Sellers", "Mexico's Sugary Drink Tax Makes A Dent In Consumption, Study Claims", "U.S. [11] A 2010 study said that consuming one to two sugary drinks a day increases your risk of developing diabetes by 26%. [114] A 2017 before and after study has concluded that one year after the tax was introduced in Berkeley, sugary drink sales decreased by 9.6% when compared to a scenario where the tax was not in place. [83][84], South Africa proposed a sugar-sweetened beverages tax in the 2016 South African national government budget. For beverages containing 5g of sugar or less per 100ml, the VAT would be MAD 30 (US$3) per 100L. Funding for the "Yes on 1634" campaign included over $20 million from major beverage producers. [127] The revenue is intended to pay for a pre-K program (49% of tax revenue), government employee benefits and city programs (20%), and rebuilding city parks and recreation centers. [122], The Philadelphia City Council approved a 1.5-cents-per-ounce tax on 16 June 2016. Obesity costs. [157], Mauritius passed a soda tax in 2013. Several studies have shown this effect in practice: The way that the tax burden is divided upon the consumer and seller depends on the price elasticity for sugary drinks. Economics & Human Biology 19 (2015): 129-137. A sugar tax is a tax on sugary drinks, also called a Sugar Sweetened Beverage Tax (SSBT). The study followed 5,115 young adults ages 18 to 30 from 1985 to 2006. The measure was estimated to generate an additional £1 billion a year in tax revenue which would be spent on funding for sport in UK schools. [106], The Measure D soda tax was approved by 76%[107] of Berkeley voters on 4 November 2014, and took effect on 1 January 2015 as the first such tax in the United States. [36], A 2019 National Bureau of Economic Research paper concluded that sugar drink taxes were "welfare enhancing, and indeed that the optimal nationwide SSB tax rate may be higher than the one cent per ounce rate most commonly used in U.S. One year after the introduction of the tax, their paper in the journal Plos Medicine shows that sales of sugary drinks in Berkeley fell by 9.6%, while sales in surrounding areas with no tax rose by 6.9%. [35], In general, the theory of supply and demand predicts that the effect of taxes is to raise the consumer price of a good, and lower the quantity consumed. Colchero, M.A. [5], Most taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are set volumetrically (i.e., with a constant rate per unit volume), and that "only three SSB taxes worldwide are proportional to sugar content. Purchases, consumption, tax pass-through rates, pricing, and rising prices of! 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